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青島新航道 > 托福資訊 > 重磅|2017年托福寫作考情分析及2018年備考建議

重磅|2017年托福寫作考情分析及2018年備考建議

來源:      瀏覽:      發布日期:2018-01-16 10:28

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2017考情分析

 

1、概述

2017年大陸地區一共進行了48場托??荚?,其中1月14日、2月18日、7月1日出現了AB卷,同樣的情況出現在2016年6月18日、2015年3月17日、2014年9月27日和11月8日,以及2013年的8月25日、10月12日、10月20日這3場考試,再往前一年,2012年7月28日、8月25日也出現了兩套考題。而與往年不同的是,今年3月4日出現ABC卷,3月11日更是出現ABCD卷。

有趣的是,往年A、B兩卷的題目當然會有所區別,獨立寫作題目完全不一樣,但是今年的不同試卷獨立題目并無區別,只不過2月18日考試A卷的題目長到讓考生心塞。另外的干擾因素是加場考試,ETS每年在原有托??荚嚾掌诨A之上,為了滿足中國大陸地區托??荚嚨男枨?,單獨在中國大陸增加的幾場托??荚?。本年度的兩次加場都出現在周末的下午,分別為7月15日和8月26日的下午場,15點開考,以及9月23日的傍晚場,16點開考。根據考生回憶,下午場的難度相比上午場并沒有更難一些。除了突然加場,多卷出題之外,上半年最后一場6月25日,中國大陸地區考生在進考場前核驗身份,啟用了人臉識別技術,種種策略無非是官方應對作弊屢屢出現之舉。

對于很多考生來說,最不幸的當屬從2017年3月4日托??荚囬_始,閱讀和聽力的“經典加試”一次都沒有出現在托??荚囍?,取而代之的是全新的、無規律的、分辨不出哪個部分是加試的套題。不過,在如此瘋狂的調整我們也要看到積極的一面,寫作部分迄今還沒有出現過加試情況。

 

2、題目類別和話題整體趨勢不變,重復考比重下降

 

獨立寫作題型

如圖所示,2017年共48場考試,題型較往年并無變化,也即沒有新的題型出現。在這48道題目中,同意與否題型25道,占比52%,較去年的32道題目(占比66%)有明顯的下降;三選一題型12道,占比25%,比去年的7道題目要多出5道,接近翻倍,這也提醒考生3選1題型的重要性在持續增加;兩者比較題型11道,占比23%,比去年的9道題多出2道,比例較接近。需要引起注意的是,雖然同意與否的題型占比稍微超過了一半,但是很多同意與否題目中的觀點也包含比較級,本質上也是兩者比較的題目。如果考生處理這類題目的時候沒有比較,肯定會因此失分。

 

獨立寫作話題比例

2017年托福寫作的話題較往年沒有新話題出現,但是話題的比重卻有變化。往年教育話題是最熱門的話題,比如2016年43場考試就有20道該話題題目,占比高達43%,而今年雖然教育話題依然領跑,但48套題目中教育話題僅占19道題目,占比40%;相較而言,生活話題則熱度持平,2016年15道生活話題題目,而今年有16道題;其次個人品質話題6道,占比13%,政府與環境4道,占比8%,社會團體話題3道,占比6%。除開話題有一些變化之外,題目給出的信息也有增多的趨勢,比如1月14日的獨立寫作題目長度多達119詞,7月15日127詞等。也就是說,雖然話題沒有變,但是題目的信息更豐富和復雜了,所以審題難度也有所增加。但是萬變不離其宗,所以來年的考試千萬不能被題目詞數嚇到。

 

各場考試獨立寫作題目統計信息

 

ETS喜歡出舊題早已不是新鮮事,相比去年的25道舊題,今年的舊題數依然堅挺,保持在26道,其中上半年11道,下半年15道。雖然舊題數增加,但是今年考試總場數更多,寫作的舊題率下降了約4個百分點。有一些舊題來自于大陸歷年的真題,而有一些舊題則來自于北美考區的歷年真題。值得一提的是,即使是重復舊題,現在有不少題目會在措辭上與往年有所區別。但這種“變異”題的審題答題思路其實是相通甚至是完全一樣的,不要被其外表所欺騙。還有一個有意思的事情是今年5月13日和27日考了一模一樣個人品質話題三選一題目,這也是繼出現ABC和ABCD卷之后又一大“新聞”??傊?,在備考的時候要多刷舊題,多關注考試的動態,這樣如果考到舊題或者類似的題目拿到理想分數的勝算會更大。

 

2017年托福寫作獨立真題按話題分類如下表格所示:

日期

教育/學習/學校 (19道)

2017/1/14

As a student of university that has a long break between university semesters, the university requires all students to do one of the following for one month during the break:

1. Students must take a course on the subject that has no direct connection to their majors of study ( For example, a student majoring in engineering may take course in fine arts or social science.)

2. Students must volunteer to work in the university’s city or their hometowns to improve someaspects of life of the city or their own town.( For example, students may help local primary school children with their homework.)

Which one do you think is more beneficial for students in their university? Why?

2017/3/25

 

Which ONE of the following factors do you believe is most important in helping students succeed in their studies at college or university? Why?

1. Having access at the university to tutors who can provide individual instruction for students who have difficulty with schoolwork

2. Having the support and encouragement of family and friends while attending university

3. Receiving a high-quality education from excellent teachers while in high school

2017/4/23

 

Some young people are free in the evenings or have days off at school, which way can bring them the most benefit?

1. to accumulate work experience by a part-time job or volunteering in a community

2. learning to play a sport

3. learning to play a musical instrument

2017/5/20

 

At some universities, students are allowed to take part in deciding issues that affect everyone in their daily life on campus such as how many hours that libraries should be open each day or what kinds of food should be served in the cafeteria. But at some other universities, experts are hired to make these decisions while students almost never involved. Which approach do you prefer and why?

2017/6/3

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One can learn a lot about a person from the type of friends this person has.

2017/7/2

 

The city wants to help teachers of its high school students (ages 14—18) improve their teaching. It is considering two choices:

1. Choose a group of excellent teachers; these teachers will attend a class led by an expert for additional training in how to teach effectively, and they will then come back to their schools and provide that training for the other teachers in the school.

2. Provide additional training in teaching effectively for all high school teachers, using online material that each teacher will study individually. Which one of these plans would you support? Why?

2017/7/15 上午場

 

Students aged 13-18 are taught different subjects by different teachers while younger students are taught by only one teacher all day long. Some people suggest it would benefit young students to be taught by different teachers. Do you agree with this view? Why or why not?

2017/9/9

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Your friend has the opportunity to choose either one of two types of major field of study, which one would you suggest your friend to choose and why?

1.A major that would allow him to complete and get a degree faster (so that your friend could start working full-time sooner).

2.A major that requires many years of study but would provide him with more employment opportunities and job offers in the future.

2017/9/16

 

Nowadays, children rely too much on the technology, like computers, smartphone, video games for fun and entertainment; playing simple toys or playing outside with friends would be better for the children’s development. Do you agree or disagree?

2017/9/17

 

High school students now cheat more than before in homework assignments, by asking other students for answers. Which of the following do you think is the most effective way to stop this phenomenon?

1. asking parents to monitor (signing homework to prove no cheating involved)

2. increasing penalty or punishment to the students who cheat

3. asking teacher to create homework assignment in which students can hardly cheat

2017/9/23

 

Many universities are trying to help new students adapt to the life on campus. If you were a new college student, which of the following do you prefer to participate in?

- Attending a one-week orientation or introduction program on campus, and it will begin before you have classes.

-  Meeting regularly in your first year with a student in your major who has been in the university for several years.

2017/9/24

 

High school graduates usually have two months’ break before they go to college or university. The high school now requires all the graduates to do one of the following to take full advantage of this break.

1 Students need to attend classes to complete university-level courses that have direct connection to their majors of study.

2 Students need to join a team led by their teacher to visit museums or historical sites and write a paper about it.

Which one do you think is more beneficial for students? Why?

2017/9/30

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Company should pay for the employees to get university degrees

2017/10/15

Most adults believethat modern children (5-10 years old) behave worse than those in the past. Whataction parents should take do you think will have the most positive effect onchildren to help them behave better like respecting and treating others kindly?

1. limit the typesof the TV programs and movies they watch

2. spend more timetalking with children

3. supervise andmonitor children while they are playing with their friends.

2017/10/21

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students nowadays are more interested in politics than in the past.

2017/10/29

 

Students are eligible for graduation when they have completed satisfactorily all the academic requirements of their degree program as specified by their major department, their college, and the university. In addition to the normal requirements, some universities are now considering requiring all students to take public speaking class in order to improve their public speaking skills. Some deems this extra requirement necessary while others have an opposite view. What is your opinion?

2017/11/4

 

Some people believe students (age 14-18) should make lectures learn by sitting there listening to the teacher while taking notes. Others believe teachers should let students communicate and share their ideas with others more. Which do you think is more effective for students’ study?

2017/12/9

 

What do you think is the most important ability for a high school teacher:

1. the ability to give good advice to students about their future plan;

2. the ability to recognize students who need help and help them;

3. the ability to encourage students to study on their own about the outside world.

2017/12/10

 

Agree or disagree?

Students do not respect their teachers as much as they did in the past

 

 

日期

生活/生活方式 (16道)

2017/2/26

 

Do you agree or disagree: Parents should help their children with schoolwork or let children work independently?

2017/3/04

 

Many filmmakers make movies based on books. Some people prefer to read the book before they watch the movie, while other people prefer to watch the movie before they read the book. Which one do you prefer?

2017/3/11

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

It is better to relax by reading a book or watching a movie than by doing physical exercise.

2017/4/1

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

When you have been friends with someone for a long time, it is important to continue your friendship with that person even if he or she does something you do not like.

2017/4/15

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

It is better to make friends with intelligent people than with the people who have a good sense of humor.

2017/6/10

 

Some people like to buy and eat their meals at restaurants frequently, while others like to cook most of the meals at home and rarely go to the restaurant. Which do you prefer? Why?

2017/6/25

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It is better to work for business owned by someone else than to work for the business of one's own family.

2017/7/8

 

Some believe that we should keep a distance from the people we care about, because it is necessary for people to understand the importance of each other, while others think being away from people we care about can damage our relationship with them and we should spend more time with them. Which do you prefer?

2017/7/15 下午場

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: It is better to spend more time watching TV programs from which we can learn knowledge and spend less time watching entertainment TV programs.

2017/10/14

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Remaining happy and optimistic when you fail is more important than achieving success.

2017/10/28

 

Many filmmakers make movies based on books. Some people prefer to read the book before they watch the movie, while other people prefer to watch the movie before they read the book. Which one do you prefer?

2017/11/11

Parents should give weekly spending money to their children.

2017/11/12

Young people aged at 16 to 19 should be required to do some paid part-time jobs.

2017/11/26

 

The food people ate in the past was much healthier than what we eat today.

2017/12/2

 

If you can change one aspect to improve your health, which would you choose? Why?

1. The kind of food

2. The amount of exercise

3.The amount of stress

2017/12/17

 

Your friend is going to reduce the living expenses. Which of the following way would you recommend to your friend and why?

1. Find a roommate that can share the living expenses.

2. Buy the new technology products less frequently.

3. Shop for less expensive food to cook at home.

日期

個人品質 (6道)

2017/1/7

Do you agree or disagree: If you are selecting a leader for a student organization, honesty is the most important to consider in deciding whom to vote for.

2017/2/25

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The way a person dresses shows a good indication of his or her personality.

2017/5/6

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement

It is impossible to be completely honest with your friends all the time.

2017/5/13

 

Which one of the following values is the most important to share with a young child (5-10 years old)?

1. being helpful

2. being honest

3. being well organized

2017/5/27

 

Which one of the following values is the most important to share with a young child (5-10 years old)?

1. being helpful

2. being honest

3. being well org

2017/11/25

The more money people have, the more money they should give away to charity.

日期

政府/環境 (4道)

2017/7/1

 

What is the most useful action for an individual to take for the protection of natural environment?

1. Leave vehicles at home and walk or ride a bike

2. Reuse and recycle waste

3. Purchase organic food in local markets

2017/8/26 下午場

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Modern agriculture methods damage the environment, but providing food for the growing population around the world is more important than protecting the environment.

2017/11/18

 

What one of the following is the most important action for the government to take for the protection of natural environment?

1. Fund research on new energy sources such as solar and wind power

2. Preserve natural places such as forests and natural wildlife species

3. Pass and enforce laws to reduce the pollution produced by companies and industries

2017/12/16

 

Do you agree or disagree that the most important thing the government should do to improve health care is to clean the environment.

日期

社會/團體 (3道)

2017/2/18

 

Do you agree or disagree: A group will be more helped by a person who is willing to do things that other members want than a person who strongly insist on things in a way that are different from other members want.

2017/8/26 上午場

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Nowadays it is easier to maintain good health than in the past

2017/8/27

 

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Some people think nowadays the media (TV, newspaper, Internet) are less concerned about the accuracy of news than in the past, and the incorrect information may cause problems to the public.

綜合寫作話題比例

2017年綜合寫作還是以生物學和考古學題目為主,全年48場考試中,其中生物學20次,考古學16次,分別占比42%和33%。去年43場考試中,有17場的總量是考查生物學,占比39%,有14場是考查考古學,占比32%。單從連續兩年的情況來看,考古學基本保持持平,但生物學考查次數攀升3場,所以生物學的霸主地位已經確立無疑。在這些生物學的綜合寫作考題中,主要圍繞動物數量下降或滅絕原因,阻止動植物數量繼續減少的方法等展開討論。

 

各場考試綜合寫作題目統計信息

2018年趨勢預測

1.加場考試比例穩定,一日多題是常態

加場考試從14年的4場,15年的3場,到去年的4場,然后回到今年的3場,說明加場考試比例繼續平均每年在3-4場左右。

但是,當我們以為今年會如去年一樣,“一日兩題”(就是同天考試的考生在考試結束之后一起核對當天考試內容時,發現他們考到了完全不同的兩套題)的比例會穩定在1-2次時,官方打破原有的規律,從3月份開始“一日多題”,然后每場考試各種老題拼盤,新的規律維持了整整一年,相信這將會繼續延續到明年。

正所謂物極必反,一日多題的情況下,官方不得不采用大量已經考過的題目,但同時又會反逼官方研發新題。否則,遲早會有舊題用盡的一天,再加上現在考試真題已經大量流傳開來,最終的結果只會是官方的題庫被研究透,到時考試的公平性絕對無法保證。

 

2. 新題數增加

正如上面所分析,官方應該在3月開始,重復舊題的同時,已經同時開始加快新題的設計,只要前期測試通過,很多新題肯定會被用到聽說讀寫四個部分中去。就寫作而言, 2015年寫作的舊題重復率在65%,2016年舊題重復率為58%,到了今年掉為54%。所以估計明年的重復率會繼續下降,但是幅度仍然不會太大。為了保證考試的公平性,ETS是不會讓兩年之內的考題有太大變化。從上面分析可以看出,下半年單場次寫作重復舊題的概率仍然比上半年要高,今年要多出4道舊題。就重復年份來看,今年主要以重復2014-2015年的題目為主,2016年或者是更早年份的則相對較少。另外,雖然今年重復率快趨于50%,但是并不是說每考一場新題,接下來就會重復一道舊題,然后又考一道新題。官方喜歡的規律是成群結隊的重復,然后成群結隊的新題,這一規律相信也是會延續到明年。如果官方真的中規中矩,那么明年極有可能以重復2015-2016年的為主,尤其是2016年。

 

3. 審題難度增加

去年7月10日的考試,獨立寫作出現有史以來字數最多(97字)的題目。這道題在今年7月2日再次出現。像這樣“長”的題目在今年出現6場以上,有的學生直言根本是最后碰到一篇閱讀加試。雖然是玩笑話,但是從考試心理上來看,字數過多的題目,即使題目本身不難寫,但是會給考生無形中帶來很大的沖擊,最直接的影響是審題時間過長,考生開始焦急,于是在沒有分析清楚思路的情況下貿然動筆,最終導致得分不高。要想拿到寫作高分,除了擺正心態之外,還得了解官方出題套路。這些“長”題目,有很大一部分都是“變異”題。比如4月23日的題目就是根據2015年11月18日的老題變異而來。官方只是把主要討論人群從students換成了young people,而after school activities順勢換成了free time in evenings。官方的目的很單純,通過更多的限定引導考生專注于所給話題去展開討論,而不希望考生套用一些假大空的理由。所以大家不要被長題目給嚇到了,扎扎實實練習審題,題目分析得多了,自然會看到它們有時候只是多穿了件馬甲而已。

 

2018年備考建議

1.熟悉真題,構思快人一步 

新航道官網都會發布每年的托??记榉治?,官網機經部分都有每場考試回憶,并且公眾微信號會及時更新每次考試的回憶,考生可以多加利用這些渠道去熟悉之前的考題。另外,如果不滿足于考試回憶,考生還可購買新航道新托福真經系列叢書來復習,該系列就是對歷年真題的真實還原,涉及到聽力材料的部分都是請外教專門錄音。

如果不去熟悉真題,那么所有的題目對于你來說都是新題,相比其他人,可能已經輸在起跑線了。

 

2.廣泛閱讀,論證強人一倍 

不管是綜合還是獨立,對上下文的銜接都有相應的考查標準。尤其是獨立寫作,不論題目類別是一邊倒議論型還是兩邊討論型,本質上都是要說服考官認同自己的觀點。而很多無法突破自己現有分數的學生,成績單上常有的一句評語是“You may not provide enough specific support and development for your main points.” 即針對自己的觀點,沒有給出具體的原因或例子,或者說沒有通過分析例子去論證自己的觀點。在這方面,除了需要通過一定的課程去強化寫作的中觀點的銜接與發展等技巧之外,還要在平時多廣泛閱讀一些英文刊物,尤其是社科類的文章去拓展思路。

 

3.  詞句鋪路,功底厚人十分 

寫作作為最后一個單項,不論從時間還是體力上,對考生都是一大挑戰。很多同學在考試時只求在規定時間內打完所有字,所以往往會出現很多單詞使用不恰當,句式結構凌亂等錯誤,最終導致的結果就是考官看不懂。有心的考生可以在考完之后看一下成績單上官方針對寫作給出的評語,雖然評語有官方套話之嫌,但確實針對該分數段,指出了相關問題,其中最常見的評語就是Your ideas may be difficult to follow…這就要求考生在平時記憶詞匯時,不要只滿足于背熟了單詞的中文意思,在寫作層面上,還要通曉該詞的詞性和固定搭配等。比如表示饑餓的單詞有hungry和starve,前者很容易,但是后者被很多同學誤以為是名詞,其實是動詞,而名詞形式是starvation。所以在表達很多人餓死了,可以說Hundreds of people starved to death. 還可以表達成Hundreds of people died of starvation. 把詞匯的基礎打牢之后,還要熟稔英語中的句式結構。據新航道的留學預備課程老師反映,很多要出國的學生,經常在there be句型上出錯。比如“很多學生在新航道學習”被表達成There are numerous students study in New Channel. 甚至有些基礎好的學生乍一看這個句子都不會發現錯誤,其實錯在study這個詞不應該用動詞原形,否則整句話出現兩個謂語are和study,應該改成studying.

針對以上兩點,建議考生在練習寫作的過程中準備一個生詞本,每寫一篇習作就要把自己不熟的單詞或者老師點評指出的句式上的錯誤積累在本子上,然后查字典確定具體用法。點滴積累,這樣才能保證在考試時間有限的情況下,能夠恰當地表達出自己所想的思路,讓考官看得明明白白。

4.TPO為王,不變應萬變

TPO本身就是曾經考過的真題,因此這些題與真實考題的思路、出題方式、難易程度的契合度都是任何別的試題所不能比擬的。所以生在練習過程中通過TPO綜合多積累學科詞匯,TPO獨立熟悉出題思路,多練習,這對考試是大有裨益的?,F將獨立寫作和綜合寫作話題分類如下,結合2017年的考試規律,重點推薦各位考生認真練習獨立寫作前2類的題目和綜合寫作前3類TPO的文章

 

 

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